Thursday, March 19, 2020
Tularemia Essays Tularemia Essay Tularemia Essay Name: Course: Lecturer: Date: Tularemia Introduction Tularemia is a highly infectious disease, which affects humans and animals, caused by the bacterium francisella tularensis. The disease affects humans through various means such as skin contact with the infected animal, taking contaminated water, inhaling contaminated dust and aerosols, bites from ticks such as dog ticks, lone star ticks, and wood ticks, bites from deer flies, exposure in the laboratory, and as an act of bioterrorism (CDC). The bacterium is highly contagious, and a small number can cause the disease. terrorists can use it as a weapon, in form of inhalation, and this would increase the number of people susceptible to the disease. Pneumonic tularemia tends to be more severe. The disease causes severe pain and it could be fatal. Mosquitoes also carry the disease, and they can spread them to humans. The bacteria enter the human body through the skin, mouth, eyes, lungs, or throat. About one hundred animal species can carry the infection (Siderovski 12). This is in additi on to birds, arthropods, and fish, which can also carry the disease. Animals such as rabbits, hares, cats, muskrats, and rodents are more likely to get the infection. In cases of outbreak, the animals die in large numbers. There are no known cases of person-to-person infections. Farmers and hunters are at high risks of getting infections. Description and Classification Francisella tularensis is a gram-negative non-molatile bacterium with two biotypes, tularensis (biotype A) and palaearctica (biotype B). It is in capsule form with pleomorphic cells, which appear as short rods. It is an intracellular pathogen, able to live in ticks for a long time. the bacterium can survive in cool conditions for a long time but the cells are sensitive to heat. The bacterium can survive in water, as well as dry land. It also survives in soil, hay, decaying animal carcasses, and straw. Biotype A is limited to North America and it is highly virulent. Biotype B is found in North America, Europe, Asia and Americas, and it is less virulent. There are four known subspecies, and they include tularensis, holarctica, mediasiatica, and novicida. mediasiatica and novicida have low virulence subspecies tularensis is exclusive to north America, while subspecies holartica is present in Europe and north America (Suckow et al., 341). Signs and Symptoms The symptoms of the disease are varied, and they depend on the mode of infection, although all humans affected by the disease experience a high fever. A person infected with the disease normally experiences the symptoms after a period of 3-5 days, although the symptoms can range from 1-21 days. Other than fever, other symptoms include chills, headaches, muscle pain, eye irritation, sweating, diarrhea, dry coughs, weakness, and joint aches among others (CDC). A person with the infection develops a lesion at the site of entry of the bacteria. The sore is often red, with a ribbed rim and a punched-out center (Siderovski 36). The person develops inflammation of the lymph nodes in the affected area (Suckow et al 342). When the bacterium enters the bloodstream, it causes bacteremia, and this enables the infection to spread to other body organs such as kidneys, spleen, and liver (Siderovski 36). Animals infected with the disease often die, but they exhibit symptoms such as depression and an orexia (Suckow et al 342) Forms of Tularemia Some of the main forms of the disease include glandular, ocuglandular, oropharyngeal, ulceroglandular, and pneumonic. The bacteria in the ulceroglandular form of disease spreads to the lymph nodes at the point of entry. The ulceroglandular form of the disease is the most common. It occurs when the bacterium affects the person through the skin. A person with ulceroglandular develops a lesion, which develops into an ulcer. The ulcer heals after one week, and it is relatively painless (Oyston 921-930). The location of the ulcer in the body can help to determine the mode of transmission. Ulcers on the upper extremities on the body indicate that the person was in close contact with an infected animal. Ulcers on the lower extremities, abdomen or the back of the body indicate that the person got the infection from arthropods (Goddard 106). Glandular tularemia is similar to ulceroglandular, expect that the infected person does not develop an ulcer. The eye is a possible route of infection, and when this happens, the person develops ocuglandular tularemia. A person with this form of disease has swollen eyelids, and he or she develops conjunctivitis. Oropharyngeal tularemia develops when a person eats infected meat or drinks contaminated water (Oyston 921-930). It can also develop when a person puts infected fingers in the mouth (Siderovski 41). This form is also known as gastrointestinal tularemia. A person with this form of disease develops pharyngitis, swollen cervical lymph nodes, and ulcers. Diarrhea is a common symptom in this form of disease, and it ranges from mild and persistent diarrhea to acute diarrhea, which is often fatal. The infected person develops an ulceration of the bowel. He or she experiences nausea and vomiting. A person develops pneumonic or respiratory diarrhea through inhalation. A person with this form of the disease becomes delirious. He or she develops a non-productive cough, chest pain, and dyspenea. The bacteria replicates quickly once a person inhales it. The person might require assistance in breathing. Testing and Diagnosis Tularemia is a rare disease, and doctors find it hard to diagnose the disease. This is because the disease symptoms resemble symptoms of other diseases. Doctors look for symptoms such as swelling lymph nodes and ulcers on the skin to make their diagnosis (Siderovski 48). The patient can help the doctor, by pointing out any chance of exposure with an infected animal. Physicians can identify the disease by examining secretions and biopsy specimen using gram stain or direct fluorescent antibody. Examination using the fluorescent antibodies is quick, and the physician gets the report after a few hours but it is not always possible to guarantee the accuracy of the results (Dennis et al 2763-2773). When testing for the disease, it is important to alert those working in the laboratory, so that they can take the correct preventive measures. There have been several cases of people getting infections because of laboratory exposure. The most efficient way of confirming the disease is by growing it in culture, although it is often difficult to do so. One can grow culture using sputum or pharyngeal washing. For a person with inhalation tularemia, the physician grows the culture from fasting gastric aspirates. The culture has to contain cysteine, and the physician places it in an environment rich in carbon dioxide. It takes about four to six days for the culture to grow (Hepburn Simpson 231-240) Prevention and Treatment People can minimize their chances of infection by adopting several measures such as not handling carcasses since one does not know whether the animal had the diseases, and using gloves when handling infected animals and carcasses. People should not take water if they are not sure of its safety. Contaminated water is one of the easiest ways of acquiring the disease. People who take wild meat should ensure that they cook it thoroughly. Tularemia often affects wild animals, and people should be careful when consuming such meat. People in endemic areas should use repellants to get rid of arthropods, and reduce their chances of infection. They should treat their clothes with repellants, as this will help them to avoid insect bites. Worry about terrorists using the bacterium as a possible weapon has compelled researchers to develop a vaccine. There have been several attempts at this, and the live vaccine strain (LVS) seems to have been the most successful. The vaccine is successful in prov iding protection against small doses of a virulent strain. Governments have not licensed the vaccine because of its reversion to virulence, variable immunogenicity, and mixed colony morphology (Oyston 921-930). The disease can be fatal in humans, if not treated. The mortality rate for untreated tularemia is 30%. Treating the disease reduces this rate to 1% (Goddard 106). Doctors use antibiotics to treat the disease in human beings. Doctors use antibiotics such as streptomycin, gentamicin, doxycycline, and ciprofloxacin to treat the disease (CDC). These are the most common antibiotics, although other antibiotics such as tetracycline and chloramphenicol are in use (Goddard 106). Treatment depends on the type of medication used and stage of the disease, though it takes 10-21 days. The use of antibiotics has increased the chances of the patientsÃ¢â¬â¢ recovery, and most patients treated usually recover from their illness. : CDC. Tularemia. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 2011. Web. 12 July 2012 Dennis, T. David et al. Ã¢â¬Å"Tularemia as a Biological Weapon.Ã¢â¬ The Journal of American Medical Association 285.21 (2001): 2763-2773 Goddard, Jerome. Infectious Diseases and Arthropods. New York, NY: Springer, 2008. Print Hepburn, J. Matthew and JH Simpson. Tularemia: Current Diagnosis and Treatment Options. 2008. Web. 12 July 2012 Oyston, C. F. Petra. Ã¢â¬Å"Francisella Tularensis: Unravelling the Secrets of an Intracellular Pathogen.Ã¢â¬ Journal of Medical Microbiology 57.8 (2008): 921-930. Print Siderovski, H. Susan. Tularemia. Infobase Publishing, 2006. Print Suckow, A, Mark et al. The Laboratory Rabbit, Guinea Pig, Hamster, and Other Rodents. Waltham, MA: Academic Press, 2012. Print
Monday, March 2, 2020
Dolphin Safe Tuna Environmental and animal welfare groups promote dolphin-safe tuna, but the dolphin-safe label is in danger of being weakened in the U.S. and some animal protection groups do not support dolphin-safe tuna. Do Some Cans of Tuna Contain Dolphin Meat? No, cans of tuna do not contain dolphin meat. While dolphins are sometimes killed in tuna fishing (see below), the dolphins do not end up in the cans with the tuna. How are Dolphins Harmed in Tuna Fishing? Two types of tuna fishing are notorious for killing dolphins: Purse seine nets and driftnets. Purse seine nets: Dolphins and yellowfin tuna often swim together in large schools, and because dolphins are more visible and closer to the surface than tuna, the fishing boats will look for dolphins to find the tuna. The boats will then set a purse seine net in a circle around both species and capture dolphins along with the tuna. Purse seine nets are giant nets, typically 1,500 - 2,500 meters long and 150-250 meters deep, with a drawstring at the bottom and floats at the top. Some nets are equipped with fish aggregating devices that attract fish and help prevent the fish from escaping before the net can be closed. In addition to dolphins, the animals who are caught unintentionally - the incidental catch, can include sea turtles, sharks, and other fish. The crew is ususally able to release sea turtles back to the ocean unharmed, but the fish usually die. The problem with dolphins being killed in purse seine nets occurs mainly in the eastern tropical Pacific Ocean. The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration estimates that between 1959 and 1976, over 6 million dolphins were killed in purse seine nets in the eastern tropical Pacific Ocean. Driftnets: EarthTrust, an environmental NGO, calls driftnets the most destructive fishing technology ever devised by humankind. Driftnets are giant nylon nets that drift behind a boat. The nets have floats on top and may or may not have weights on the bottom, to keep the net hanging vertically in the water. Driftnets come in a variety of mesh sizes, depending on the target species, but they are a wall of death, killing everyone who gets caught in them. The United Nations banned driftnets over 2.5 kilometers long in 1991. Previously, driftnets up to 60 km long were in use and legal. According to EarthTrust, before the ban, driftnets killed over a hundred thousand dolphins and small cetaceans every year, along with millions of seabirds, tens of thousands of seals, thousands of sea turtles and great whales, and untold numbers of non-target fish. Pirate fisheries still use giant, illegal driftnets and will sometimes cut the nets loose to avoid getting caught, leaving these walls of death to continue drifting and killing indiscriminately for centuries to come. Although dolphin deaths from both methods has been greatly reduced, a 2005 study titled, Non-recovery of two spotted and spinner dolphin populations in the eastern tropical Pacific Ocean found that dolphin populations have been slow to recover. Can Tuna be Caught Without Harming Dolphins? Yes, a purse seine net can be made to release dolphins. After encircling both the tuna and dolphins, the boat can conduct a backdown operation in which a portion of the net is lowered enough for dolphins to escape. While this technique does save dolphins, it does not address other incidental catch issues, such as sharks and sea turtles. Another way to catch fish without harming dolphins is long line fishing. Long line fishing uses a fishing line that is typically 250-700 meters long, with several branches and hundreds or thousands of baited hooks. While longline fishing does not kill dolphins, the incidental catch includes sharks, sea turtles and seabirds like albatross. The Dolphin Protection Consumer Information Act In 1990, the U.S. Congress passed the Dolphin Protection Consumer Information Act, 16 U.S.C. 1385, which charges the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) with regulating dolphin-safe tuna claims. The dolphin-safe claim means that the tuna were not caught with drift nets, and that Ã¢â¬Å"no tuna were caught on the trip in which such tuna were harvested using a purse seine net intentionally deployed on or to encircle dolphins, and that no dolphins were killed or seriously injured in the sets in which the tuna were caught.Ã¢â¬ Not all tuna sold in the U.S. is dolphin-safe. To summarize: If the tuna were caught without driftnets and without chasing, encircling or killing dolphins, it can be sold in the US and is dolphin-safe.If the tuna were caught by chasing and encircling dolphins, but no dolphins were killed or seriously injured (and other requirements are met), the tuna can be sold in the U.S. but cannot be called dolphin-safe.If the tuna was caught by chasing and encircling dolphins, and dolphins were killed, it cannot be sold in the U.S. Of course, the above is a simplification of the law, which also requires tuna canners to file monthly reports and requires large tuna purse seine vessels must carry an observer. NOAA also conducts spot-checks to verify dolphin-safe claims. For more details on the NOAAs tuna tracking and verification program, click here. You can also read the full text of the Dolphin Protection Consumer Information Act here International Law International law also applies to the tuna/dolphin issue. In 1999, the United States signed the Agreement on the International Dolphin Conservation Program (AIDCP). The other signatories include Belize, Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, El Salvador, European Union, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, Peru, Vanuatu, and Venezuela. The AIDCP seeks to eliminate dolphin mortality in tuna fishing. Congress then amended the Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA) to effct the AIDCP in the United States. The AIDCP definition of dolphin-safe allows dolphins to be chased and encircled with nets, as long as dolphins are not killed or seriously injured. This definition differs from the U.S. definition, which does not permit the chasing or encircling of dolphins under the dolphin-safe label. According to the AIDCP, 93% of the sets made by chasing dolphins resulted in no deaths or serious injuries to dolphins. Challeges to the Dolphin-Safe Label Despite the dolphin-safe label being voluntary, and the fact that a fishery need not attain the dolphin-safe label in order to export tuna to the U.S., Mexico has twice challenged the U.S. dolphin-safe label as an unfair restriction on trade. In May of 2012, the World Trade Organization found that the current U.S. dolphin-safe label is inconsistent with the United States obligations under the Agreement on Technical Barriers to Trade. In September, 2012, the U.S. and Mexico agreed that the U.S. would bring its dolphin-safe label in line with the WTOs recommendations and rulings by July of 2013.Ã To some, this is yet another example of how environmental and animal protection are sacrificed in the name of free trade. Todd Tucker, research director for Public CitizenÃ¢â¬â¢s Global Trade Watch, states, Ã¢â¬Å"This latest ruling makes truth-in-labeling the latest casualty of so-called Ã¢â¬ËtradeÃ¢â¬â¢ pacts, which are more about pushing deregulation than actual trade . . . Members of Congress and the public will be very concerned that even voluntary standards can be deemed trade barriers.Ã¢â¬ Whats Wrong with Dolphin-Safe Tuna? The UK-based Ethical Consumer site calls the dolphin-safe label somewhat of a red herring for several reasons. First, the vast majority of canned tuna is skipjack tuna, not yellowfin tuna. Skipjack tuna do not swim with dolphins, so they are never caught using dolphins. Also, the site points out that, It has been estimated that saving one dolphin, by using (fish aggregating devices), costs 16,000 smaller or juvenile tuna, 380 mahimahi, 190 wahoo, 20 sharks and rays, 1200 triggerfish and other small fish, one marlin and Ã¢â¬ËotherÃ¢â¬â¢ animals. The very strong implication that dolphin-safe tuna is sustainable or more humane makes the label problematic. Some animal protection groups object to dolphin-safe tuna because of the impact on tuna. Tuna and other fish populations are threatened by overfishing and from an animal rights perspective, eating tuna hurts tuna. According to Sea Shepherd, bluefin tuna populations have fallen 85% since industrial fishing began, and current quotas are too high to be sustainable. Environmentalists and animal advocates were disappointed in 2010 when the parties to CITES refused to protect tuna. In September of 2012, conservation experts called for better protections for tuna. According to the International Union for Conservation of Nature, five of the worlds eight tuna species are threatened or nearly threatened. Amanda Nickson, Director of Global Tuna Conservation at the Pew Environment Group stated, There is sufficient science available to set precautionary limits . . . If we wait five, 10 years for the science to be perfect, in the case of some species we may not have anything left to manage. Aside from concerns about extinction and overfishing, fish are sentient beings. From an animal rights perspective, fish have a right to be free of human use and exploitation. Even if there were no danger of overfishing, each individual fish has certain inherent rights, just as dolphins, seabirds and sea turtles do. Buying dolphin-safe tuna recognizes the dolphins rights, but fails to recognize the tunas rights, which is why many animal protection groups do not support dolphin-safe tuna.
Saturday, February 15, 2020
Revelation - Essay Example When someone reads the quote that someone would give a different meaning if there were other words selected for the quote. Even if the words meant something similar to the words already in the quote, the interpretation of the quote would be entirely different. The quote means that there is light, and that time will stand still in the light. When someone dies that someone sees only light, peacefulness, and happiness, the quote has profane time because time on earth is priceless, and time in heaven will be endless. Having time on earth with oneÃ¢â¬â¢s family gives one a sense of belonging and togetherness. One will take a family snapshot to keep memories alive, and remember those loved ones who have passed away. When life on earth is done all one, has been the memories of a loved one, and often those memories are captured when time freezes in a family snapshot. Family snapshots are one of the most important things that a person can have, these things help to keep the memory alive and are especially important when a loved one dies. Loved ones who die will see the light, which is what the sunlight, or flash represents in the quote. The flash, and time standing still are symbols as if they are symbols of the afterlife. So, whenever a person takes a snapshot to capture one moment in time, the person should realize this may be it, this may be the last snapshot taken. Part Two: Ã¢â¬Å"The doctorÃ¢â¬â¢s waiting roomÃ¢â¬ (86) was small in size, and Mrs. Turpin could not be there were so many people in the waiting room. Mrs. Turpin wanted Claude to sit down so she said Ã¢â¬Å"sit in that chairÃ¢â¬ (86). When Claude sat down this is Turpin continued to look around the room. Her eyes became focused on an elderly gentleman sitting in a chair near Claude. Ã¢â¬Å"The lean stringy old fellow with a rusty hand on each mean was pretending to be asleepÃ¢â¬ (86). Claude tried to get up and allow Mrs. Turpin to sit down. Mrs. Turpin said to Claude Ã¢â¬Å"you know you ar e not supposed to be standing on that legÃ¢â¬ (86). Claude let everyone in the waiting room know what was wrong with his life, and why he was not supposed to be standing on his leg. With nowhere to sit one of the other women sitting in the waiting room who was dressed just like Mrs. Turpin suggested that the little boy in the waiting room cannot, and allow Mrs. Turpin to sit down Ã¢â¬Å"but the child did not stirÃ¢â¬ (86). Mrs. Turpin decided she would need to wait until someone was called into the doctorÃ¢â¬â¢s office before she would be able to sit. The waiting room was small, and Ã¢â¬Å"hardly bigger than the garageÃ¢â¬ (86). There were not too many moments that passed by before the Ã¢â¬Å"door opened and a nurseÃ¢â¬ (86) called the next patient in. Mrs. Turpin, and the woman who dressed like Mrs. Turpin was having a conversation. Next to the woman Ã¢â¬Å"was a fat girl of 18 or 19" (87). The fat girl was well-dressed womenÃ¢â¬â¢s daughter. The childÃ¢â¬â¢s moth er sat next to him, she was dirty. Mrs. Turpin often entertains herself at night with thoughts of how blessed her was that she was who she is. Sometimes, Ã¢â¬Å"Mrs. Turpin occupied herself at night naming classes of peopleÃ¢â¬ (88). The classes of people were below her, with her, and above her. The childÃ¢â¬â¢s mother was definitely below Mrs. Turpin. Mrs. Turpin, and the well-dressed woman were having a conversation in the doctorÃ¢â¬â¢s office. The conversation was about anything that occupied either womanÃ¢â¬â¢s mind. Oftentimes the low class woman would join in the conversation. Mrs. Turpin would cut the lower-class
Sunday, February 2, 2020
Org behavior - Assignment Example They do this by managing costs, increasing costs or undertaking both. Essential product positioning, innovation, and targeting marketing can cause an increase in sales, while improving processes and controlling overhead expenses can reduce costs. Also, managers provide timely and effective revelation of information that is relevant to all the stakeholders. The revelation of this information highlights the organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s respect towards their stakeholders. In addition, organizations set up code of ethics or rules and regulations for their employees and managers. These rules and regulations direct the way managers and organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s employees handle and relate with other stakeholders (Brickley, Smith, Zimmerman, & Willett, 2000). Entrepreneurship creates value and satisfactory results for stakeholders by instigating innovative business ideas that promote future prosperity and wealth building in an organization. Moreover, entrepreneurship promotes the health and progress of an organization. It achieves this by creating fresh opportunities of business in all areas of the organization. On the other hand, entrepreneurship promotes innovation and increases profits of an organization. Lack of entrepreneurial action may make an organization not to get to its maximum capability (Brickley, Smith, Zimmerman, & Willett, 2000). Nonetheless, any knowledge that enters or is produced by the organization should create value to all the stakeholders. Organizational theory, design and change, structure and culture, have an interconnecting role in an organization. Organizational theory refers to the duty of an organization on the impact of the surrounding on the operational outline of the organization and how the organization works in the environment. This depicts an association with the cause and effect law. The organizational design and change points to how and why a variety of methods are selected. This helps the organization to manage its culture
Saturday, January 25, 2020
How McCabe and Mrs Miller and Blade Runner Subvert Their Genres and Defy Audience Expectations Two genres which have always been Hollywood staples are science-fiction and the western. The genres can be seen in films made as early as Le Voyage Dans la lune (Georges Melies 1902) and The Great Train Robbery (Edwin S. Porter 1903). On the surface the two genres are very different, however if one looks closely at them they are similar in many ways. Both genres usually feature uncharted frontiers, strong silent protagonists, frightening savages (played by either space aliens or Native Americans) and damsels in distress. The formula for these two genres was established many decades ago and in recent years it takes a film that defies and subverts those expectations such as Unforgiven (Clint Eastwood 1992) or Alien (Ridley Scott 1979) to receive an enthusiastic critical and box office response. Two other films which subvert the traditional genres of westerns or science fiction films are McCabe and Mrs. Miller (Robert Altman 1971) and Blade Runner (Ridley Scott 1982). These films use archetypal settings, characters and action in a way which is substantially different from our expectations and the results are extremely memorable films. McCabe and Mrs. Miller is the story of a man, John McCabe (Warren Beatty) who tries to set up a whorehouse/tavern in a small town in the Pacific Northwest in 1901. He meets an astute madam, Mrs. Miller (Julie Christie) who runs his business and shares in his profits. The business thrives and they develop a relationship. A mineral deposit draws powerful mining company men to the town to try and buy McCabe's holdings. He refuses to sell and they retaliate. He ultimately is mortally wounded in a bloody showdown with the mining company's thugs leaving Mrs. Miller all alone. Robert Altman created a film which Pauline Kael called "a beautiful pipe dream of a movie -- a fleeting, almost diaphanous vision of what frontier life might have been." The film certainly feels different from most Westerns, featuring the distinctively different music of Leonard Cohen and a washed-out style of cinematography which Altman claimed "was trying to get the feeling of antiquity, like the photographs of the time." The cinematography is starkly different from the vibrant colours of The Searchers (John Ford 1956) or Rio Bravo (Howard Hawks 1959... ...ells him to do but he does it anyway. This is a stark difference from Captain James T. Kirk or Luke Skywalker. Scott is clearly trying to create a film which does not fit into traditional science-fiction formulas and he has succeeded with Blade Runner. Both McCabe and Mrs. Miller and Blade Runner are excellent films, they manage to succeed in subverting traditional genres in a way that creates fresh and different movies which both critics and movie goers have not seen before. This kind of genre shifting has grown more and more popular in recent years as movie goers have grown tired of seeing formulaic films filled with stock characters. In the future as young filmmakers look to the past for inspiration to create fresh and unique films which subvert genres and defy audience expectations hopefully they will look to the work of Robert Altman and Ridley Scott as prime examples. Bibliography: Jacobs, Diane. Hollywood Renaissance: The New Generation of Filmmakers and their works. 1977. New York. Dell Publishing. Sammon, Paul M. Future Noir: The Making of Blade Runner. 1996. New York. Harper Collins. Sklar, Robert. Movie-Made America. 1994. New York. Vintage Books. How McCabe and Mrs Miller and Blade Runner Subvert Their Genres and Def How McCabe and Mrs Miller and Blade Runner Subvert Their Genres and Defy Audience Expectations Two genres which have always been Hollywood staples are science-fiction and the western. The genres can be seen in films made as early as Le Voyage Dans la lune (Georges Melies 1902) and The Great Train Robbery (Edwin S. Porter 1903). On the surface the two genres are very different, however if one looks closely at them they are similar in many ways. Both genres usually feature uncharted frontiers, strong silent protagonists, frightening savages (played by either space aliens or Native Americans) and damsels in distress. The formula for these two genres was established many decades ago and in recent years it takes a film that defies and subverts those expectations such as Unforgiven (Clint Eastwood 1992) or Alien (Ridley Scott 1979) to receive an enthusiastic critical and box office response. Two other films which subvert the traditional genres of westerns or science fiction films are McCabe and Mrs. Miller (Robert Altman 1971) and Blade Runner (Ridley Scott 1982). These films use archetypal settings, characters and action in a way which is substantially different from our expectations and the results are extremely memorable films. McCabe and Mrs. Miller is the story of a man, John McCabe (Warren Beatty) who tries to set up a whorehouse/tavern in a small town in the Pacific Northwest in 1901. He meets an astute madam, Mrs. Miller (Julie Christie) who runs his business and shares in his profits. The business thrives and they develop a relationship. A mineral deposit draws powerful mining company men to the town to try and buy McCabe's holdings. He refuses to sell and they retaliate. He ultimately is mortally wounded in a bloody showdown with the mining company's thugs leaving Mrs. Miller all alone. Robert Altman created a film which Pauline Kael called "a beautiful pipe dream of a movie -- a fleeting, almost diaphanous vision of what frontier life might have been." The film certainly feels different from most Westerns, featuring the distinctively different music of Leonard Cohen and a washed-out style of cinematography which Altman claimed "was trying to get the feeling of antiquity, like the photographs of the time." The cinematography is starkly different from the vibrant colours of The Searchers (John Ford 1956) or Rio Bravo (Howard Hawks 1959... ...ells him to do but he does it anyway. This is a stark difference from Captain James T. Kirk or Luke Skywalker. Scott is clearly trying to create a film which does not fit into traditional science-fiction formulas and he has succeeded with Blade Runner. Both McCabe and Mrs. Miller and Blade Runner are excellent films, they manage to succeed in subverting traditional genres in a way that creates fresh and different movies which both critics and movie goers have not seen before. This kind of genre shifting has grown more and more popular in recent years as movie goers have grown tired of seeing formulaic films filled with stock characters. In the future as young filmmakers look to the past for inspiration to create fresh and unique films which subvert genres and defy audience expectations hopefully they will look to the work of Robert Altman and Ridley Scott as prime examples. Bibliography: Jacobs, Diane. Hollywood Renaissance: The New Generation of Filmmakers and their works. 1977. New York. Dell Publishing. Sammon, Paul M. Future Noir: The Making of Blade Runner. 1996. New York. Harper Collins. Sklar, Robert. Movie-Made America. 1994. New York. Vintage Books.
Friday, January 17, 2020
Zohar ShavitÃ¢â¬â¢s discussion of the development of the concept of childhood takes into consideration the literature that has been developed for children. ShavitÃ¢â¬â¢s goal was to explain how the concept of childhood evolved as it is shown along the lines of childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s literature. This essay will attempt to provide criticism regarding the manner by which Shavit argued his case. Focus and attention will be towards the development of the argument. Furthermore, each section of ShavitÃ¢â¬â¢s article will be analyzed and critiqued in terms of how it contributed to the strength of the authorÃ¢â¬â¢s argument. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Shavit begins his article by discussing the beginnings of the concept of childhood. He described how up until the seventeenth century, children lived in an adult world and were not considered as distinct from their adult counterparts. (Shavit, 318) In other words, the world had no concept of what a child was. Every aspect of a childÃ¢â¬â¢s life was that of an adult as well. He cited various reasons for such including the fact that there was a high mortality rate among children and the poor survival of children during the time. Moreover, children did not really enjoy a childhood as it is now defined for early in life, they were made to do things that adults do. Some marry at a very tender age while others are thrust into a working life. (Shavit, 318) Shavit then discussed how in the seventeenth century the unity between the lives of adults and children shifted to polarization. (Shavit, 319) He described how children began to develop their own way of life including the emergence of clothing and educational games. (Shavit, 319) Basically, at this time, a distinction between adults and children began to be established.Ã The concept of childhood developed out of the polarization between the adultÃ¢â¬â¢s and the childÃ¢â¬â¢s world. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Shavit moved on to discussing the emergence of childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s literature specifically to meet the new educational needs of children as defined by the perceived need to mold children who were seen as delicate creatures. (Shavit, 320) Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Having established how childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s literature emerged, Shavit then discussed the evolution of the one of the most commonly analyzed childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s tales, Ã¢â¬Å"Little Red Riding Hood.Ã¢â¬ He discussed how the story evolved just as the conception of childhood evolved as well. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã ShavitÃ¢â¬â¢s main argument and the thesis of his article is that the concept of childhood and its evolution through time shapes the literature that has been developed for children. Basically, as the concept of childhood is altered so is the literature for children. ShavitÃ¢â¬â¢s thesis is quite general. His analysis lies along the general lines. (Shavit, 317) Furthermore, based on his thesis, one can see that the evolution and history of both the concept of childhood and of childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s literature are necessary elements of his argument. As such, in order to prove his thesis, Shavit had to lay down the history of the concept of childhood and how childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s literature emerged from the development of the concept. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã ShavitÃ¢â¬â¢s argument is well structured. He lay down the foundation of his argument by providing historical insights in both the concept of childhood and of childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s literature. From this foundation, Shavit was able to show the relationship between childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s literature and the evolution of children in society. More importantly, this foundation was integral in his discussion of the primary source for readers are able to relate the concept of childhood in the text with the perception of childhood in society at the time the text was published. ShavitÃ¢â¬â¢s article moves on along a time line making it logical and sound. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Shavit utilized an analysis of the text, Ã¢â¬Å"Little Red Riding HoodÃ¢â¬ to demonstrate how the concept of childhood evolved. More importantly, Shavit used a comparison between two versions of the text to show that a difference in the conception of childhood existed between the two different time periods. Shavit compared PerraultÃ¢â¬â¢s version with that of The Brothers Grimm in order to illustrate how the concept of childhood influences the story. He quoted both versions to demonstrate how the two differed in particular parts of the story. For instance, Shavit quoted PerraultÃ¢â¬â¢s and The Brothers GrimmÃ¢â¬â¢s versions to show the difference between the two particularly in the part where the grandmotherÃ¢â¬â¢s love is expressed in the story. (Shavit, 330) Shavit did no divert from either text and ensured that both were properly quoted. ShavitÃ¢â¬â¢s use of the quotations was specifically for the purpose of showing the difference of the two versions in demonstrating family ties in the text. Other than for such purpose, Shavit failed to utilize the primary texts. ShavitÃ¢â¬â¢s arguments could have been strengthened by more use of the primary sources. Although he was able to extensively compare the two texts, he was not able to make readers appreciate the comparison since he insufficiently quoted the two versions. Shavit likewise compared the endings of the two versions of the story. He noted that the difference in endings led to a change in the meaning and moral of the story. (Shavit, 329) The moral of PerraultÃ¢â¬â¢s story was intended for the gentlemen since it emphasized the wolf. On the other hand, the Brothers GrimmÃ¢â¬â¢s version Ã¢â¬Å"stresses Little Red Riding HoodÃ¢â¬â¢s learning a lesson.Ã¢â¬ (Shavit, 329) The difference in endings thus provides evidence that the two versions were intended for distinct audiences. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã ShavitÃ¢â¬â¢s discussion entailed the use of two versions of the Ã¢â¬Å"Little Red Riding HoodÃ¢â¬ to show how the concept of childhood evolved. However, as mentioned earlier, Shavit failed to utilize the texts adequately. Instead of quoting the texts, Shavit used his own perception and analysis to demonstrate the difference in the two versions. In other words, ShavitÃ¢â¬â¢s arguments lacked sufficient backing from primary sources. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã In his recount of the history of the concept of childhood, Shavit failed to cite sources for his descriptions. He mainly utilized his own descriptions and understanding of history in his explanations. In his discussion of the two concepts of childhood that emerged in society, he failed to cite sources for it. His explanations were logical and easily understood. However, without enough evidence from sources, a shadow of doubt is seemingly cast over the authenticity and validity of his arguments. His arguments may be seen as subjective for he was unable to use historical sources. ShavitÃ¢â¬â¢s comparison of Perrault and The Brothers GrimmÃ¢â¬â¢s versions of Ã¢â¬Å"Little Red Riding HoodÃ¢â¬ were very extensive. He was able to cover several elements of the story including tone and ending. However, he was unable to justify most of his comparisons by quoting the texts. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã In general, Shavit was able to show how the concept of childhood evolved. He was able to demonstrate how a different concept of childhood emerged in PerraultÃ¢â¬â¢s and The Brothers GrimmÃ¢â¬â¢s versions. More importantly, he was able to show that at the two different times, children were thought of differently. In this light, Shavit was successful in proving his arguments but there is room for improvement. More historical sources will make ShavitÃ¢â¬â¢s arguments stronger and more sound. It will increase the validity of his statements. Works Cited Shavit, Zohar. Ã¢â¬Å"The Concept of Childhood and ChildrenÃ¢â¬â¢s Folktales: Test Case-Ã¢â¬ËLittle Red Riding HoodÃ¢â¬â¢.Ã¢â¬ The Classic Fairy Tales.Ã Ed. Maria Tatar. Norton, 1999. 317-332.
Wednesday, January 8, 2020
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